It is clear that the study of philosophy has been since man existence. It began in ancient Greece by questioning everything that is doubtful by using reason and critical thinking. The ability of reasoning is considered as the ultimate gift that all humans possessed. In fact, humans are the only creatures on the planet who possess reasoned speech. All of us use reason and logic in order to enhance our ability to distinguish between the right and the good. On the other hand, Socrates is regarded as the father of Western ethics. He asserted that self-awareness to be the basis of ethics because the individual will realize what is correct and what is wrong, and therefore be glad and happy. In fact, I believe that reason alone determine our actions with regard to ethics for three reasons. The first main reason is that reason and emotions are incompatible. Many people are familiar with the structure of reason. It enables us to combine, examine, problem-solve, and to demonstrate situations. However, emotions do not last long. They can be powerful experiences, but they make us do things we later regret. The second main reason is that ethics based on reason. Without reason, there will be no ethics or moral philosophy. Ethics seek to solve questions about human actions by defining concepts such as evil and good, crime and justice, vice and virtue. Therefore, using reason alone allow philosophers to create a branch in philosophy (moral philosophy) to guide us in determining our behavior and actions. The final argument is that reason alone is the key to determine our action regarding the society as a whole and not just for the self. Reasoning help people to make decisions for the public good. For example, democracy is referred to as rule of the majority. This system is based on reason. If we did not apply reason, there will be no democracy.
I believe that reason is the capacity that it conscience for making sense of things. It is based on beliefs either new or existing information. In the past, there was no harm for killing people because people do not know the consequence behind it. However, by applying logic and verifying facts, killing now is unethical because of the harm it causes to the killer. I confirm that reason without emotion determine our actions with regard to ethics. If we use emotions to determine our actions before using reason, then we will do things we later regret. In order to succeed in achieving what is good for us and avoiding what is terrible is sometimes difficult. In fact, we always make choices and decisions that we do not know the consequences that may be incurred. For example, when we invest in a company or get married, there is always a chance that things will not work out as trusted. Imagine a case where your friend is dying next to you. If we use reason in this case, you may save him by calling an ambulance or perform CPR. However, if you use your emotion instead of your reason, you may be terrifying because you are seeing your friend dying next to you, and then you will do nothing. By changing objectives and desires without giving it much thought, emotions and feelings could lead us to create decisions that hurt our interests. Accomplishing something that you would prefer not to do is one of the signs of irrationality. A brief example from a movie that support my argument called Gone Baby Gone. This movie talked in general about a young girl that has been kidnapped. The girl’s aunt hires two private investigators to assist in the search. They discovered that the girl’s mother abuse drugs and has stolen money from a dealer. In addition, they find that the police captain is in on the kidnapping. After they solved the case, they must make a decision about the girl’s future. Each would violate a moral principle and both have bad consequences for the young girl. If we use reason only in this case, the investigators will rather arrest the mother for stealing the money and abusing the drugs even if it will have bad consequences for the young girl. However, if they use their emotions rather than reason, then they may not arrest the mother for her actions because they will think about the girl’s future, which is wrong. The girl may survive without her mother, but the mother must be arrested so that the girl cannot be affected by her mother’s actions. In philosophical aspect, it is clear that reason is the faculty or the establishment of Kant’s moral philosophy. Kant’s ethical theory states that the wrongness or the rightness of actions does not rely upon their outcomes but rather on whether they satisfy our duties. Therefore, reason alone determine our actions with regard to ethics.
Moral philosophy or ethics can be defined as a branch in philosophy that includes defending, systematizing, and setting rules and concepts of wrong and right conduct. I believe that ethics are based on the reasoning. In the past, people do not have the ability to distinguish between the right and the wrong actions. For example, if I hit someone for no reason right now, I may feel guilty because of the harm I may cause to him with regard to ethics. However, if I hit him before ethics came, I may not feel guilty because I do not know the harm that I may cause to him. Therefore, reason came before ethics. In other words, ethics are the results of applying reason and logic. In fact, if reason is utilized appropriately, it will allow us to survey the results of our actions, and to formulate an objective judgment about moral behavior. Therefore, it allows us to establish a strong structure for defining a moral code. In this way, your actions are determined by using reason alone and your decisions will provide a moral code. Reason additionally drives people to respect each other who esteem reason, which thusly creates a community where rights are safeguarded in an objective way and unbiased. A brief example to prove my argument is based on a movie called Alzheimer’s played by an Egyptian actor named Adel Emam. Mahmoud (played by Emam) acknowledges one day that he can’t perceive the people who work at his home. However, he has been tricked by his children to trust that he has Alzheimer’s malady. They did this so that they can gain control of his money in order to pay their own debts. After Mahmoud noticed that his children have deceived him, he made funny pranks to teach them the wrong action they did to their father. In fact, Mahmoud uses his reason to teach his children the right thing to do. After that, they noticed that their actions were wrong and they asked forgiveness from him. In this case, he used reason in order to evaluate their actions so that they can arrive to an objective judgment of moral code. If we relate this movie to philosophy, Aristotle states that human beings are the only creatures that have a rational soul. The benefit of a person must have a remark about being human. What sets humankind off from different species, and giving us the possibility to carry on with a superior life, is our ability to direct ourselves by utilizing reason. If we utilize reason in a good manner, we live well as individuals. In fact, doing anything admirably requires goodness or greatness, and in this way, living admirably comprises our actions caused by the reasonable soul as per uprightness or perfection.
Using reason alone was the first and the main important thing that helps the humanity to overcome many problems that faced our world. In fact, reasoning alone was the first thing that helped a man to create a system to provide stability to our world we know now such as democracy. Democracy appeared for the first time in Ancient Greek. Cleisthenes, who is known as the father of Athenian democracy, establishes this system that most of countries now adopting it. Democracy is referred as rule of the majority. This system is based on reason. If we relate this argument with philosophy, I believe that democracy is known as common good. Common good is what benefits the society and the community as a whole. Now, let assume that this system does not exist from the beginning. The question I guess that everyone will ask, how the world will be without this system? The answer is that the world will be equivalent to hell. In other words, survival is for the stronger and death for the weaker. Therefore, Cleisthenes was able at that time to use his reasoning to provide us with a system that solve many issues around the world nowadays and determine our actions with regard to ethics. He combined his reason with moral philosophy to provide the world with a system in order to help the humanity in general to overcome the issues we face now. A brief example to prove my argument is based on a movie called The Lady. The movie talked in general about a girl named Aung San Suu Kyi. She is a daughter of a man who led Burma to independence. On 19 July 1947, a group of unknown men assassinated her father with a group of his colleagues. After that, she went to England and she married with a lovely husband. One day, she went back to Burma due to her mother’s poor health. She realized that political change is needed in Burma. Therefore, she decided to support the Burmese people by devoting herself in political activities. She changed the political system that was used in Burma by applying democracy and fairness. As a result, she became the first women in Asia to won the Nobel Peace Prize. Now, the relation between my argument and the movie is that here reasoning was the only thing that help her to overcome the issues that Burma faced at that time. In fact, reason alone was the only thing that help her determine fateful decisions and actions for the society as whole with regard to ethics. Therefore, reason alone determine our actions. In philosophy, Kant is known as the faculty of reason. He states that you are to act only for the maximum happiness of the society and that your actions become a universal law. He means that if we ought to act using reason, our actions also contribute to the society as a whole. In fact, if we did not apply reason, many universal laws that we are following now will not exist. Therefore, reason is the only key that determine our actions with regard to ethics.
Reason is a topic that raised many different points of views between philosophers. Honestly, I believe that reason is the ultimate gift that all humans own. It is the only things that differentiate us from other creatures. I believe that reason alone determines our actions with regard to ethics for three main reasons. The first reason is that reason and emotions are incompatible. The second reason is that ethics based on reason. The final argument is that reason alone is the key to determine our action regarding the society as a whole and not just for the self. As far as I am living, I believe that reason is the basis of all the actions we made in our lives and it is the only key that is responsible for determining our actions.