In active patent drugs which are founded to

In the late 19 th  century, an concept called prodrug has been
used to make an improvement for the undesirable properties of drugs. although the
actual term prodrug was used for the first time at the end of the 1950s.simply
one can defined Prodrugs as inactive, bioreversible derivatives of the active
parent drug molecules that needs to undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical
transformation in vivo to give the active form of parent drug, and after that
it can elicit the desired pharmacological effect in the body. It was founded
that, approximately 20% of all approved drugs during the period 2000 to 2008
with small molecular weight were prodrugs.(
Kristiina et al 2011)

In simplified form, the masked forms of the  active patent 
drugs which are founded  to be
activated after an Enzymatic action  or
chemical reaction after  their
administration into the body are called prodrugs as illustrated in  (Fig.) (Ettmayer et al.,2004; Stella et al.,
2007; Rautio et al., 2008; Rautio, 2010; Stella, 2010)

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The purpose of  the
use of prodrugs is to control what is called “drug like” properties i.e.,
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME1) propertiesDue to
that  they can cause some problems in the
development of the drug. also, the prodrug strategy was used to increase the drugs
selectivity. This can help in the improvement of the drug efficacy and also
decrease toxicity(T). many people may be surprised to know that currently
approximately 10% of all global medicines in the market are classified as
prodrugs, and in 2008 alone, 33% of all approved prodrugs are small molecular
weight drugs.(Rautio,2010; Stella, 2010). The term “pro-drug” was introduced
for the first time time in 1958 by Adrien Albert (Albert, 1958). But later, Adrien
Albert discovered that the term “pro-drug” was an inaccurate term and thought that
the term “prodrug” would have been a good descriptive one. But it was to late because
the original version “pro-drug” was widely used due to Albert’s puplications. In
1899 Schering introduced the first prodrug which called methenamine (or
hexamine), it’s a good example for the prodrugs which is site selective and it’s
mechanism consists of releasing of ammonium ions in acidic urine along with
formaldehyde which has antibacterial characters.(Testa, 2004; Stella et al.,
2007).there is a big increase in the use of prodrug and it’s development
science 1960s. (van De Waterbeemd et al., 2001), the beginning of 21st
was the time of the breakthrough in prodrug and this was appeared in published
journal, reviews and patents. In 2009 nearly 15% of the 100 type of best
selling low molecular weight drugs were prodrugs (Rautio, 2010)

 

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