. discussed was that often times their family,


As discussed in lecture, hijras, a third gender of biological males, reside in Pakistan
and India. These hijra individuals disrupt hegemonic structures of gender by
identifying themselves as neither male nor female. Although they are born male,
they tend to feel like a female internally. Essentially, hijra individuals’
genders involve both male and female characteristics. Although these
individuals have characteristics of males and females, they tend to be
considered a third gender that is separate from the two biological genders of
male and female. As discussed in lecture, in India, these hijras used to hold
higher positions as guards before colonization. However, once colonization occurred,
these individuals in higher positions were forced into more marginalized
positions such as sex work and blessings/dancing at weddings. Therefore, they
went from a higher class to a lower class typically working as a prostitute. From
lecture, I acquired that hijras are also disrupting hegemonic structures of
politics in Pakistan and India. In Pakistan, they are disrupting hegemonic
politic structures by pushing for a third gender on national identification
cards. Instead of changing their identification cards from male to female, they
are progressively pushing for a third gender category. They are also
challenging political power by voicing their opinions as a group on
marginalization tactics. Since these individuals disrupt hegemonic structures,
they tend to face some challenges within society. From the Refinery 29 video in
lecture, one challenge for a hijra that they discussed was that often times
their family, community, and government do not accept them. Since their
families do not accept them, they end up having to leave their homes away from
their loved ones. This can be a challenge for them as they have to figure out
life on their own without familial support from their blood relatives. As
discussed in lecture, when hijras leave their homes, they tend to form fictive
kinships with non-blood related individuals, which eventually end up becoming
their sources of support or family.

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            Similar to the travesti and cross dressers in Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan, hijras tend
to dress in clothing separate from their biological genders. For example, as
Dr. Samuel Buelow discussed, when biological males are cross dressers, they
tend to wear female clothing or hijabs. As I also learned in the Refinery 29
video that cross dressers are similar to the hijras in India in that they tend
to wear a sari or clothing wrap, typically worn by females, to give them their
true identities. In contrast, though, cross dressers can be biologically male
or female; however, hijras are only biological males.