Currently without the constraints of wired connections. People

Currently Internet has been developed for more than forty years. In
recent times, a lot of researchers are studying networks based on latest
communication techniques, more than ever wireless communications. Wireless
networks allow hosts to wander without the constraints of wired connections.
People can organize a wireless network effortlessly and speedily. Wireless
networks have an important role in both military and civilian systems. There
are many applications of wireless networks like handheld personal computer
connectivity, notebook computer connectivity, vehicle and ship networks, and
rapidly deployed emergency networks. Swarm Intelligence (SI) 3 is an
Artificial Intelligence technique based on the study of combined behavior in
decentralized, self-organized systems. “Swarm Intelligence” was introduced by
Beni & Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems. Swarm
intelligence is “The emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple
agents” 3. It gives rise to complex and often intelligent behaviour through
simple, unsupervised interactions between a total numbers of autonomous swarm
members. Swarm is considered as biological insects like ants, bees, wasps, fish,
fireflies etc. The quick coordinated flight of a group of birds with very
little visual communication and the concerted effort of an ant colony in
gathering food, building nests, etc are some of examples of emergence in
natural world.

Swarm intelligence (SI) is a well-known
distributed paradigm for the solution of hard problems. The most interesting
property of SI is the involvement of multiple individuals that interact with
each other and the environment, exhibit a collective intelligent behavior, and
are able to solve difficult problems. Many applications, mainly in the contexts
of computer networks, distributed computing and robotics exploit algorithm
designs using SI. The basic idea behind this paradigm is that many tasks can be
more efficiently completed by using multiple simple autonomous agents instead
of a single sophisticated one. Regardless of the improvement in performance,
such systems are usually much more adaptive, scalable, and robust than those
based on a single, highly capable, agent. An artificial swarm can be generally
defined as a decentralized group of autonomous agents having limited
capabilities. Usually there is no
centralized control structure dictating how the individual agents should
behave, but local interactions between such agents often lead to the emergence
of a global behaviour. SI has found immense applicability in fields like
Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, process optimization, telecommunications,
routing, software testing, networking etc. In the case of smart buildings,
wireless technology is used to link together a number of sensors or
transducers, switches and controllers via a network to create small energy
savings. When a number of low power consuming devices are linked together, a
bit like the self-organizing behaviour of bees or ants, their resulting
collective power saving can generate an appreciable amount of energy and avoid
a brownout or even blackout. 

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