Chapter 5 Summary and Conclusions In this chapter,

Chapter
5

Summary
and Conclusions

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In this
chapter, the researcher hopes to mainly discuss about the major findings,
conclusions and educational implementations.

5.1 Introduction

The aim of the present research proposal is
to the development of teaching module for second language Tamil teachers. It
describes the importance of speakers who speak Sinhala and Tamil languages have
in learning each other’s language. There are a number of regional and social
dialects existing in both Tamil and Sinhala. Sri Lanka is a small Island with
four major ethnic groups named Sinhala, Tamil, Moors and Burgers. There are
three languages (Sinhala, English, Tamil) are used by the citizens of the
country and mainly schools have on Sinhala/Tamil medium. The student of Sinhala
medium schools must study Tamil and English as a second language and Tamil
medium students must study Sinhala and Tamil as a second language. With the
implantation of Kannangara education reform in 1943 which made English the
compulsory second Language, the English medium education in Sri Lanka began to
decline and the first languages, Sinhala and Tamil became the medium of
instruction in education. The ethnic conflict emerged in Sri Lanka in 1956 s
grew up in a civil war in 1980s threading the peaceful existence among people
and this, consequently gave rise to a thought the  languages can be used as a catalyst to
re-establish endangered peace and harmony in the country.  Learning each other’s language is
one of the expectations of Sri Lankan government in order to create an
atmosphere of mutual understanding, cultural understanding and ethnic cohesion.
The school leaders should be given continuous training on peace strategies in
Oder to build the peace culture in the school system. As the main roles of the
school system the principals should peace culture the supportive environment
for teachers in implementing social cohesion and peace building practices
though their learning teaching process including Co curricular acttivies. Being
a multi religious a multi ethnic pluralistic society, it is incumbent upon
every Sri Lankan to learn a national language other than his or her own.
Learning each other’s language is one of the expectations of Sri Lankan
government in order to create an atmosphere of mutual understanding, cultural
understanding and ethnic cohesion. Second national language was introduced as a compulsory subject in junior
Secondary Grades and an optional subject in senior secondary Grades in 1998 to
build National harmony and social integration between different ethnic groups
(NEC, 1997). The ministry of education issued a circular (no 02/2000),

“Every student in grade 1to 13 must study in English
as a second language and grade 3 to 9 students must study Sinhala /Tamil
(according to education medium as a second language.)”

5.2 Need for Study

The national
Education commission report pointed out the following objectives in 1992,
(p.7).

“Nation building and the establishment of a Sri Lankan identity through
promotion of National cohesion, national unity, harmony, peace and recognizing
cultural diversity in Sri Lanka’s plural society within a concept of respect
for human dignity”.

The educating for productive work of human resource
development enhances the quality of life of the individual and the Nation and
contributes to the National development of Sri Lanka. National Institute of
Education highlighted several Key objectives of teaching Second national
language in Secondary Grades. Those are; to preserve the peaceful co-
existence, various communities living in a plural society should learn both the
National languages which will provide the communication skills. The teachers
who teach second language mostly use poor teaching methods and teaching
materials, which are prepared by the education ministry and are difficult to
practically use in classroom teaching. Therefore, they teach using their own
methods and are unable to afford to student interest and students refuse to
learn it. As a reason of it, this research study intends to design teaching
modular for grade six second language teachers in Sinhala Schools, Sri Lanka
the data indicate that the task of teaching a second language has been a
failure to some extent the following table of G.C.E.O/L examination result also
provides clues to its.

5.3          
Review of Literature

The reviews the literatures regarding two
topics apply to this research:

·        
Studies
related to Tamil as a second language, Sri Lanka

·        
Studies
related developing teaching modules to teach Tamil

These broad topics have been narrowed down to
focus on particular areas such as the importance of teaching Tamil as a second
language in schools and, value of teaching material. These reviews carry out
the difficulties and expectations of teachers. According to more funding

·        
The
teachers who teach-in Second language Tamil are mostly using poor teaching
methods.

·        
As a
result of frailer of training programs held by education ministry the teachers
don’t have enough facility of impure their knowledge and teaching skills.

·        
There
for they teach in the classroom without confidants and student refuse the
learning Second languages in the classroom.

·        
Teachers
don’t have a correct idea about teaching Second languages or Second language
teaching methods. Abstract of these, most of people can’t speak at least two
languages in the country.

5.4
Statement of the Problem

Development
of teaching modules for teachers to teach Tamil as a second language in grade
six in Sinhala medium school, Sri Lanka.

5.5. Methods of study

The
present study was conducted at two levels. The first level focused on studying
the grade six second language Tamil text book in Sinhala medium school, Sri
Lanka and preparing the teaching module to help teachers to teach the content.
The module validated by the experts.

The
second level thirty teachers undergoing training at the institute of national
education Sri Lanka were trained by the teachers. The training of the teaching
module to teach Tamil as second language in grade six among Sinhala teachers
evaluated.

Pilot study to evaluate the introduction and utility
of the DVD was conducted Gampha in district, five teachers, four school and 206
students.

5.6 Operational Definitions

5.6.1. Teaching modules

The modules are most important teaching material
of teachers. In this study the
teaching module refer to the adjectives, content, learning methods, activity
and researcher designed to provide the teachers with detailed structured
analysis to the teach Tamil as second language in Sinhala medium school for
grade six students. This study involves the methodology of content development
and modules developed in Tamil language. Further, it will reduce the student
burden of learning a second language through a systematic and sequential
process of learning. This research study can be a source for implementing
second language Tamil at the beginner’s level.

5.6.2
Second Language Tamil Teachers in Sri Lanka

All
National Colleges of Education (NCOE) also teach the second national language
as a compulsory component to all students-teachers, but only a very small
number of teachers are trained to teach it as a second language. Training in
second national language teaching in the NCOEs began in 2006 and of the batch
that completed in 2009 and were ready to commence teaching in 2010, only 19
teachers were trained to teach Tamil as a second language, and 24 teachers were
trained to teach Sinhala as a second language. 
In the present study, second language Tamil teachers refer to undergoing
learning at the national institute of education. (NIE)

5.6.3
Sinhala Medium Schools in Sri Lanka

Most of the schools in Sri
Lanka are maintained by the government as a part of the free education.
Currently there are 9,994 government schools with a student population of 3.8
million and 212,441 teachers, with the establishment of the provincial council
system in the 1980s the central government handed control of most schools to
local governments.  

 

5.6.4
Grade Six Sinhala Students

 After primary education, the junior secondary
level starts from Grades 6. Age group 10-11 years students are included.

5.7
Objective of Study

·          
The
objective of the study is to development of teaching module in Tamil as second
language for teachers to teach grade six students in Sri Lanka

·        
The
objective of the study is to introduce 
suitable teaching methods and activities 
           for study  Tamil as second language for teachers to
teaching grade six

·        
The
objective of this study is to validate the content of teaching module in Tamil through
to improve the teaching skills among teachers.

5.8
Population Study

The population of present study covered of
all teachers of the studying national institute of education, Sri Lanka.

5.8.1 Sample of Study

The thirty second language Tamil teachers
were studying in the national institute of education, Sri Lanka..

5.9
Research Design

In the present research, researcher select mix research
designs because the researcher expects to develop
teaching modules for second language teachers and have them validated by
experts.

5.10
Tools used in study

To find out the quality of module and DVD the
researcher has developed two feedback form for teachers who participate to
training programme and teachers who try out the three modules in grade six
class room.

Reliability
analysis

The cronbach’s Alpha

      The data analyses of thirty teacher’s
feedback which participated the training programme. The researchers calculate Cronbach’s
Alpha by using spss. According to the
result of cronbach’s Alpha is 0.851 and it describes the reliability of present
research is good.

5.11 Rationale for
preparation of teaching module

The teaching
modules and DVD has been constructed to help students accurate the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing).The
regular Tamil teachers use traditional teaching methods and pays her attentions
only to improve reading and writing little importance is giving to speaking and
listening. Students need to listen and to speak. They need to understand the
sound and learn the structure of alphabet and arrange into words and sentences.
The student needs to master all the skills of language. Therefore the
researcher gave more importance to sections that the teachers ignore.

5.12
Procedure of the study

a. Identification and selection

Identification of topics required to develop
content to teach Tamil as second language was prepared.

b. Preparation

The Preparation of the content of trains the
teachers.

c. Facilitative Tools

A self-design instructional modules
conducting of ten modules, 35 frames in ADDIE model along with a medium of
content storage and distribution prepared auto play menu design 4.4 (DVD). The
martial is close afforded in appendix.

5.12.1
Preparation of Frame

The development of module refers to some
methods and theories coming up with the idea of designing the teaching
materials. The development of modules and other teaching materials is a good
initiative for a teacher who is very concerned on every learning output of the
students. The teacher’s innovative style and creativity help the students to
acquire necessary skills in language The most common model used for creating
instructional materials is the ADDIE model;

Within many years, educators
alike have used the ADDIE
Instructional Design (ID) method as a framework in designing and developing
educational and training programs. “ADDIE” stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. This
sequence, however, does not impose a strict linear progression through the
steps. Educators find this approach very useful because having stages clearly
defined facilitates implementation of effective teaching learning tools.

5.13
Content of Module

The researcher developed ten modules using
several teaching methodologies. The 10 modules are divided into the 35 frames.
All frames create using a teaching method such as contents Activities,
poem, Essays, Notes, Stories, and Grammar.

5.13.1 Medium of content storage and
Distribution

The Researcher developed the content for the
DVD to tie the student’s interest for the lesson.

The content for the DVD includes of power
point presentations, alphabet strokes, images that supported the teaching learning.
All PowerPoint presentations create by the researcher. Other instances
resources which are video clips, YouTube resource and images used of the capacitive
authors have been acknowledged.   

5.14.
Evaluation of the Teaching Module

Phase 1: feedback of the Teaching Module

          The initial draft of the teaching module and DVD were
evaluated by the six experts   three from
India and three from Sri Lanka.

Phase 2: Teaching and training the teachers

The
researcher conducted the training program to introducing the teaching module
for second language teachers to teach grade six in Sinhala medium schools, Sri
Lanka. These teachers attained second language learning programmer organised by
the National Institute of Education in Sri Lanka.

Phase 3: Try out

The tryout of modules was conducted
by the five second language teachers from grade six Sinhala medium schools, Sri
Lanka.

5.15
Statistical procedure used

The statistical analysis of study descriptive
statistic: namely mean, and stand devotion were computed for the data included
in the study.

The
Means of most questions are 4 and between 3.5 – 4.it explain module and DVD is
good Standard Deviation drop 0.55 or 0.45.it is not far off from mean
and  indicating that a majority of data
points are positioned extremely close to the Mean. 

5.16
Finding of Study

From the present research the researcher find
out following findings.

1.     
The
evaluation of teaching martial (modules and DVD) used in training programme is
very effective. The results indicate as 21% excellent, 61%good and 17% were
average.

2.     
The
training programme is very useful for teachers and its shows as 50% excellent,
44% good and 6% average. 

3.     
The Clarity in
Learning objectives and Learning outcomes of modules shows high range. The module number 1.7.and
10 score 80%, 80%, 60% as excellent and 20%.20%, 40% as good. These results indicate teaching aides would help them in teaching
in class more interactive.

4.     
The design of lesson in the module is suitable for teachers to teach
second language in grade six. The module number 1.7.and 10 score 60%.80%, 80 as
excellent and 40%, 20%, 20%  as good.
Then modules help to conduct the classroom teaching easily.

5.     
The
data describe the module number 1.7.and 10 appear 80%.60%,40% as  excellent and 20%, 40%,60%  as good. The teaching material and
supplementary aids are very important to teachers. Thus it explains developed
module and DVD are useful teaching materials and it can be use their teaching.

6.     
In the
teaching learning process exercises are very important. According to the result
the module number 1.7.and 10 define 60%, 80%, 60% as excellent and 40%.20%, 40%
as good. It indicate Exercises include in module is very effect for learners to practice the
lessons.

7.     
To
obtain the language acquisition for student’s teachers should be develop
listing, speaking reading and writing skills of them. The results of data
realize the module number 1.7.and 10 score 80% excellent and 20% as good. Then
we can agreed module and DVD can be use to develop the language skills of students and It is helpful for teachers.

8.     
Organization
of Content is very impotent part of modules. Result, shows the module number
1.7.and 10 score   40%, 20%, 40% as
excellent and 60%.80%, 60% as good. The modules prepared by using perfect
method and it most important to teachers.

9.     
The
lessons of modules should have good combination. According to the data the
module numbers 1.7.and 10 defined   60%
as excellent and 40% as good. This result describe the developed modules have
good combination.

10.  The supplementary aid is very useful for
teachers. It can be use for good enter for lesson, to conduct lesion, to
continue lesson. The module number 1,7and 10 responded 100%, 80%, 60% as
excellent and 20%, 40% as good. Further the more the module number 1, 7.and 10 shows the Systematic presentation and ease of use of the DVD as 100%, 100%, 60 % excellent.  Audio visual aid is very important to keep
student’s attention and manage the time. It indicates module and DVD are
suitable to use as a supplementary aid. 

5.17
Conclusions of Study

The study concludes that the varied
activities and techniques used in the modules were very helpful to the teachers
for teaching second language in the classroom. A few years back education
specialist advice to use more colourful teaching material for teaching. But
after changing the world for globalization, students expect more technical
martial with IT backup. The modules include with DVD. It helps to need of the
students to improve writing and pronunciation skill. Modules with graphic
presentations and video clips are attractive designs in enhancing student’s
attention. In addition, students with convenient to a desktop, laptop or
multi-media projector, sound reading and writing skills, and at the same time
with motivation, and self-discipline to participate regularly, are most likely
to succeed.

Today things are not as
simple as different types of knowledge have different rates of growth. The
average of human knowledge is doubling every 13 months.  According
to IBM, the build out of the “internet of things” will lead to
the doubling of knowledge every 12 hours. As a result of fast knowledge
doubling rate the students refuse traditional classroom. Therefore, teachers
had to invent smart teaching methods with the teaching material. Students not
satisfied only with text book and they ask more practically event for classroom
learning. The modules of
develop by researcher were very relevant and very useful for use in the
classroom because these modules develop based to grade six second language text
book. The format, contents and organization of the modules were generally
commendable as perceived by the three- group of evaluators. As explained in
chapter one student’s interest of learning second language Tamil is very low.
Materials containing all the required sources for learning are effective tools
in enhancing and improving students’ knowledge and skills in the subject. The
reinforcement of lesson discussed, through modern activities whether online or
traditional can be integrated to heighten students’ interest in learning any
subject.

The roles of students are changing fast. They stand for any
uncomfortable learning in the classroom and away from there. So then the
teacher should be more careful about their teaching skills. The developed material for the study allowed
the teacher to perform his role as a guide, a helper and a resource person
instead of a tyrant. As a result, the students had a space to utilize their
time and talents efficiently. The content, organization of the material
provided an opportunity for teachers of their deeper involvement and student
active participation in the lesson. In this way, the students taught with the
help of designing material outscored the students taught with the Textbook.
Lower ability students were greatly motivated and inspired when taught with the
help of material. It catered to the needs of the average and low ability
students and allowed to proceed at their own pace to complete the learning task
set by them.

5.18 Suggestion

1.     
National
institute of education in Sri Lanka may conduct workshops for the training of
the teachers to use teaching   materials
for teaches the second national language.

2.     
Subject
instructors and directors may be trained to revise and update teaching   material continuously to incorporate the new
developments in the light of the latest researches in the Second national
language.

3.     
Before
writing of the second language Tamil textbooks Educational publication
department of Sri Lanka may respect and study other disciplines on modular
patterns. These books may be validated by conducting lessons in the classrooms
with their help as proposed in this study.

4.     
4Ministries
of Education may provide sufficient funding facilities and necessary
administrative and academic help to develop and validate modules at second
language Tamil.

5.     
The
government should financially support teachers who have the interest and
potentials in developing modules and other instructional materials to provide
quality education. This could also serve as an income-generating project in
school.

6.     
The
research should be conducted to assess the relevance and useful of the module
by subjecting it to the use of Grade VI Sinhala students.