ABSTRACT www was invented it gain popularity.and with

ABSTRACT

Cryptography
is  science and an ancient
art.cryptograhy is used to secure information which is highly
confidential.cryptography is used to secure information by changing it into non
readable form.it is used from thousand of year.with passage of timeinformation
security becoming important in data storage.its history start from 1980 but it
was not popular because people don’t have information about it but in 1989 when
www was invented it gain popularity.and with passade of time it become the
essential part of the information security.now study about the ancient method
of cryptography and about its future enhancement.

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INTRODUCTION

Security in very important in data transferring.data transfer is a
process in which we transfer data from one location to another location and
from one host to another host.today internet gain value for exchange of data
therefor demand is increasing day by day for searching a solutrion which can
protect their data from thieves attacks.during data transfer system try his
best that no external party can change the data.so to minimize this situation
system converts its data into a non readable form in the time when its sents
from sending side and when data reaches its destination system convert data
again into its original form. There are many method  which is used to for security of the data

Cryptography

 

1.It is the art and science of
protecting information from undesirable individuals by converting it into a
form non-recognizable by its attackers while stored and transmitted

Encryption

It is the element of cryptography it uses a key or a parameter  for data transformation.some message
trequired the same length of key which is equall to the message which is
encoded ut in the same way some other encryption algorithm uses the smaller key
for encoded message.when message received on receiver side Decryption of the
data occur which iresult in orginal message.it is used in modern time.for
example  automatic teller machine used
this method.this also permit message to be authenticated by creating digital
signature this is very useful when sensitive email are sent for communication.

 

Cipher

20 cipher is any method of encrypting text (concealing
its readability and meaning). It is also sometimes used to refer to the
encrypted text message itself although here the term ciphertext is preferred.

 

Decryption -restore
the original information from theencrypted form.

Plaintext

 The data
in its original form is called plain text

Ciphertext

 The data which is encrypted is called
ciphertext.

Cryptanalysis
 The techniques
 which is used for
deciphering a message without its  knowledge of the enciphering details is called
cryptanalysis.

Cryptology-
 The areas
of cryptography and cryptanalysis are called cryptology.

 

Historical
Cryptography

Ancient Egypt

 

The
ancient of cryptography is from Egyption.Nearly 4000 years agoon the tomb of
nobleman Khnumhotep.He used unusuall symbol for information hiding.this method
replace  by cipher in modern age.with the
passage of time Egyption culture evolved 
it become more common.there are many theory about why Egyption used
encryption system some people think that they want to hide theire religious
rituals from common people.

Greece

 

In about 500
B.C. the Spartans dev evolved a device called Scytale.this device was used to
send and receive private secret message. The shape of the device was a cylinder
in which a narrow strip of parchment was wound. Length-wise   message
was then written on the parchment. Once it was unwound the message on the strip
of parchment became unreadable. On receiver side to receive message an
identical cylinder was needed. It was only then that the letters would line up
resulting in the original message.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                   

 

 

 

Rome

 

The
earliest military use of cryptography comes from Julius Caesar 2,000 years ago.
Caesar, being commander of the Roman army, solved the problem of secure
communication with his troops.

 

Caesar developed
a substitution ciprmethod in which he 
substitute letters from different letters. Only those who knew the
substitution used could decipher the secret messages. Now when the messengers
were overtaken the secret messages were not exposed. This gave the Ro man army
a huge advantage during war.

 

 

 

 

REFRENCES

20 http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cipher

 

Jefferson
Wheel Cipher

In the late 1700’s, Thomas Jefferson give  a cipher system which was  similar to the Vigenere Cipher except that its
security was high. He invented a machine which has 26 wheels and on each wheel
alphabets were randomly scattered. The wheels were numbered and ordered with a
specified order. This order is the key to the encryption algorithm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modern Encryption

The “one-time pad” encryption algorithm which was
invented in  early 1900’s, andi  has been proven as unbreakable. The one-time
pad algorithm is derived from a previous cipher called Vernam Cipher. One-time
pad called unbrokeable because of two reason first is that the key which is
used is completely random and second is that it is implemented by using modular
addition of XOR which is used to combine plain text with key elements.

 An example of this is shown in Figure 11. The
key used for encryption is also used for decryption. Applying the same key to
the ciphertext results back to the plaintext.

                                                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                    

 

Future Methods
of Encryption

Elliptic Curve
Cryptography

 

Elliptic Curve
Cryptography (ECC) has technically already been invented but is considered by
the author to be a future technique of cryptography because its advantages and
disadvantages are not yet fully understood. ECC is an approach to encryption
that utilizes the complex nature of elliptic curves in finite fields. ECC
typically uses the same types of algorithms as that of Diffie-Hellman Key
Exchange and RSA Encryption. The difference is that the numbers used are chosen
from a finite field defined within an elliptic curve expression.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quantum
Computation

 

Quantum
computation is performed in a quantum computer or processor, which is a
processor that makes use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as quantum
superposition and quantum entanglement. Modern computers store data using a
binary format called a “bit” in which a “1” or a
“0” can be stored. The computations in modern computers typically
work in a bit by bit fashion. Quantum computers store data using a quantum
superposition of multiple states. These multiple valued states are stored in
“quantum bits” or “qubits.” Depending on the quantum
design, each qubit can store a set number values simultaneously (Jones 2009).
This allows the computation of numbers to be several orders of magnitude faster
than traditional transistor processors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

There has been a
historical pattern that shows the country with the strongest encryption has
been a leader in military power. By studying cryptography and encryption, a
country could strengthen its defenses and have the necessary means to survive
in a hostile world. An understanding of encryption can also help individuals
with securing private data and information. Even though it is severely
unethical, our communication with one another is constantly being monitored.
Those who monitor our communication can include governments, internet service
providers, hackers, identity thieves, and more. By learning to use cryptography
for secure communication, we can safe guard ourselves from being compromised by
those who could steal our information. Cryptography is illegal in many
countries because the local government wishes to be able to read any
transmission sent. Many people speculate that the United States does not need
these laws because the NSA has developed methods of cryptanalysis that break
all encryption methods currently known.