? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???????

? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
???? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????
?? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????
??? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ???????????
????????? ??????????, ???????????
??????.
? ????????
????????????? ?? 1866 ??? ??? ?????? Henri
Nestle ??? ?? ?? ??????????
??? ?? ??? «Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co.» ??
1905 ???????? ??? ???????? ? ????? ???
???? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????.

? ??????
????????? ????????? ????????, ??????
??? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????????????
?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????
(????????, 2010). ???????? ??????? ?????????
?????? ????, ??????????? ??? ???????????
?? ???? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ??????
??? ????????? ?????????? (?????? – ?.
??????? – ?, ?? ???? ??? ?????????), ??
?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????
?????????????.
??? ??? ???
?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???
???? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????????
????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???
???? ??????? ??? ???????? ???.????????
??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??
Brands (??????) ?? ????????????
?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????????
????????. ??? ?? ??? ????? ????????
????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????
?? ????: ?) ?? ???????????? ?????????
brands ??? ?????? (????
Nescafe, Maggi,
Perrier) ??? ?) ??? ???????
?? 10 ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????
????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????
??????? ?? 1/5 ??? ??? ??????? ??????.
?????? ????
?? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ???
???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????
??? ????? ??? ? ?????? ??????????
????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???
????????.
??????? ??
?? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???
????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???????
??? ??? ?? 2016 (annual
report 2016), ? ??????
????????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???
2000 ?????? ?????????, ???? ??????????
????????? (???? ? Nescafe),
??????????? (???? ?? ???? Nido
??? ???? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???
???, ???????, ??????? ??? ???????????
???????????1).
?????????? ????? ??? brands
????? ?? ?????????:

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????
???? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??
?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????????
??? ?????????, ? ????? ???????????? ??
3 ??????? ????????: ?) ??????, ????????
??? ????? ??????? (AMS), ?)
??????, ?????? ??????, ???????? ?????
??? ?????? ???? (EMENA) ???
?) ???????? ??? ????? ??????, ????????
??? ????? – ?? ???? ??? ?????????
(???)??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??
?????????????? ??? ????????? ?????
???? ?????? ????????. ???? 2 ?????? (AMS
??? EMENA) ? ??????? ???
??????????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ???
???? 3? ??????? (???) ?????
????????????? ?? 2/3 ??? ???????????,
?????? ??? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??
????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????
???????, ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???
??????????? ??? ?????????? ???.

?????? ???? ? ??????? ??? ???????????
??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???
???? 3 ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????
??????????????? ??? ???? 3 ????????. ?
??????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??
?? 45% ??? ???????, ? ?????? – ?. ??????
– ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?? 30% ??? ? ????????
??? ????? ??????, ?? ???? ??? ?????????
????????? ?? ?? 25%. ???? ?? ???????
???????????? ??? ??? ? ??????? ???
???????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??
????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????
???? ??? ?????????????? ???? ??????
?????. ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????
??? ????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????
?? ????????????? ????? ???????? ???
???????.

1?
????????
???????????
??????? ??? ??? ?????????
1980
– 2000
????????
??? ?????? ??????
??????????
??? ??? ????????? ????
?????
?? 2000+

? ????????
???????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????????
?? ??????? 150 ?????? ????????????????
???, ??? ???? ??????????. ???????, ?
???????????? ????? ???????? ???, Helmut
Maucher, ?? ????? ??? ???????
?? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???
????????? ??????: «So there was at that time, the
nineteenth century, no global
strategy. Companies
like Nestle and Maggi has no idea of being global or multinational»
(Maucher, 1989:93).

????
????? ??????, ? ?????? ??? ??? ??????
??? ?? 1866 ??? ???? ???? ??????????????
??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???. ?????
?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????
?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???????
?? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????.

1?
????????: ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???
???????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??????
(1866 – 1960)

H ?????? ???????? ???? ??
?????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???
??? ????????????. ??? ?? ????? ??????
??????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???
«Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co.» ?? 1905. ???? ????????
????????? ????????? 3 ???? ?????????
???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????:
?) ? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?????????????
??? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ????????
«Peter, Cailler, Kohler Chocolats Suisses S.A.» ?? 1929, ?)
?????? ???? ????? ? ????? ??????? ???
?????????, ? Nescafe, to
1938 ??? ?) ?? ??? ???? ??? 1??
?????????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ?
?????? ??? ???????????? ???? ???
????????, ???????? ??? ? ?????? ???
?????? ????. ???? ?? ????????? ?? ???
????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???
????? ? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??
????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???
?????????. ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????
???? ??? 40 ??????????.2

???????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????,
?? 1947 ? ???????? ????????????? ?? Nestle
Alimentana S.A.
???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ?? ?aggi
??? ??? ??????? ?????? (1948), ????????????
???? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????, ??????
?? brands Nestea
??? Nesquik, ?????? ????
????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????
?????.

???? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ?? 1957
???? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????????
???????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ????
?????????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????????????????
??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????
??? ?????????.3

2?
????????: ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???
???????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???
????????? (1960 – 1980)

??? ?? 1960
??? ???? ? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????
??????. ???? ??????? ???? ????? ???
??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? Heudebert-Gervais
??? Frisco ?? 1960 ??? 1962 ??????????. ?? 1962
?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? Crosse
& Blackwell ??? ????????????????? ???
???????????????? ???????. ??? ????
?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????
???????????? ??????? Findus
??? ?????? ?????????????.

????? ????????
??? ????????:

1968 –
??????? ??? ???????? ???????????
?????????? Chambourcy. ???? ????? ???
????????? ??? ’70 ?? ???????? ?? ?????
?????????? Sveltesse.

1969 –
??????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????
?? ????? ???????? ??? Vittel

1973 –
??????? ??? Stouffer Corporation (????????????????
???????)

1974 – ???
????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???
???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ????????
??? L’ oreal
(???????? ??? ???? ????????)

1976 –
????? ??? Libby, McNeill & Libby (????????????????
???????)

1977 –
????? ??? Alcon Laboratories,
????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????????
????????.

??? ????????
??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????
?? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???
??????????? ???????? (?????? – ?????????
– ??????????? ????) ??? ??? ????
(????????, ??????? ???????? ???). ???
????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????
??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????,
? ??????????? ??? ?? Nestle
S. A.4

1
???? ?????????? ??? site
??? ?????????:
https://www.nestle.com/brands/allbrands/nido

2
https://www.nestle.com/aboutus/history/nestle-company-history#tab-1914

3
https://www.nestle.com/aboutus/history/nestle-company-history#tab-1948

4
https://www.nestle.com/aboutus/history/nestle-company-history#tab-1960