3.1.Participants students on certain errors is influenced by

3.1.Participants

Participants are students of the 7th grade of Montenegrin
primary schools from the central, southern and northern part of Montenegro. They
belong to the third cycle of learning English.

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3.2.Aims of the Study

 

Considering the
fact that the analysis is performed on the corpus of recorded material from
different areas of Montenegro, the goal is to: (1) draw conclusions whether
there were some major variations by comparing the scope and categorization of
errors based on regional differentiation; (2) determine whether the influence
of the students on certain errors is influenced by the interference of the
mother tongue (in our case we are talking about adverbial errors, that is,
adverbs of time, since we have noticed that in that part, the students make a
lot of errors); (3) determine whether at the age of grade VII similar and
lexical and grammatical errors occur; (4) see if the knowledge of time tenses is
the biggest problem when we talk about grammatical errors.

 

3.3.Hypothesis

Our research is based on the following hypotheses: (1)
There are no variations in the scope and categorization of errors based on
regional differentiation; (2) the influence of the
student is influenced by the interference of the mother tongue (we will try to
determine whether it is an attachment, that is, an adherence to the provision,
since we have noticed that in that part, the students make a lot of mistakes);
(3) At the age of VII grade, both lexical and grammatical errors will occur;
(4) knowledge of verb tenses is the biggest problem when we talk about
grammatical errors.

3.4.Instruments

When it comes
to the methodology of the error analysis work, for the purpose of our research,
a comparative analysis was selected to check the hypothesis that there are no
significant differences in the number and type of errors made by students of
those ages.

Since the
corpus of this paper represents the recorded hours of pupils of elementary
school with the aspect of analyzing two types of errors, the method of corpus
linguistics is also indispensable, which enables the relevant results and
conclusions to be based on the analysis of a particular corpus, in this case
English language classes in the selected schools. This approach makes it
possible to extract, with the help of certain tools (egTextanz)1,
characteristic lexical and syntax elements that influence the creation of a
total discourse. Within it, a number of different methods of introspection and
retrospect (questionnaires, interviews, “loud thinking” of students
about what they do, informal conversations between teachers and pupils) were
used, followed by testing and observing students’ behavior in specific lexical
and grammatical tasks.

The above
steps are used to provide a detailed analysis of the quantitative and qualitative
approach to the errors made by students in speech. Considering the fact that
the subject of work is an analysis of the corpus of different types of errors, a
method of contrastive analysis is used, which will determine whether there are
significant variations in students’ errors, depending on which part of
Montenegro they come from, so one of the goals indicate variations, if any, and
their possible reasons. At the same time, we will try to give an answer to the
question of whether there is an interference of the mother tongue (when we talk
about adverbs, that is, adverbs of time) in English.

As a model for
the idea of creating  error classification
table, we  partly use  the
Common Mistakes table and the English author T.J. Fitikides (his
terminology in English language), since this work will serve the needs of
non-native English speakers, too. Since we need a clear, precise and concise,
and above all a simple overview of all the errors that may arise in the speech,
we will make a practical tabular overview that provides the possibility of
easier selection of the error, then its inclusion in a certain category, and
afterwards, due to the needs of our work, easier comparison (grammatical-lexical)
errors with percentage calculation.

This table
provides a simple overview of both grammatical and lexical errors. Errors will
be separated in the form of a chapter, and each chapter will have a detailed
description of the listed categories of errors. In this way, we have a clear,
and above all, detailed description of each error, and inexperienced English
speakers provide great ease in identifying and describing, and sharing errors.

 

1 A program that helps analyze each type of text that
abounds in lexicon and grammar (contributes to a faster analysis of words,
phrases, expressions, helps in selecting words-words do not repeat, etc.).