1. It is an urban planning principal in

1.   
Introduction :

With the
constant migration of people to cities has resulted them to grow in size and
expand it’s services but due to this rapid growth many essentials have been
side-lined or neglected which has made these urban hubs prone to a lot of
issues but major being the limited green spaces and presence of urban heat
island. Even in the Paris accords there was an emphasis on the need for
restoration of natural habitats and prevent further deforestation (Davis
et al. (2017)). Many new
techniques and methods have been introduced and implemented with resounding
success but in many cases, they have not been introduced in a large scale or
are not relevant to the present context to have a major change or effect on the
present conditions. This paper focus on the one such principal “The Garden
city” it’s positive and negative aspects and opens the idea on integrating
other methods with this core idea.

“The sights and sounds of everyday life affects everyone” –
Victor Hugo (F.J.Osborn) (pg1)

Garden
City : the twentieth century marked the invention of Aeroplane and Garden city;
One marked man the ability to fly and the other gave him a better dwelling
space.  (Howard)  (pg1).  It is an urban planning
principal in which “green belts” surround self-contained
communities, these communities contain proportionate areas of agriculture
residences and industry.  Sir Ebenezer Howard
wanted to combine both town and county in order to give the working class an
alternative to work in the agriculture sector. His
idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (2,400
ha), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six
radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the
centre. (Goodall,1987).

Vertical gardens:
A garden that grows vertically using support
systems, rather than horizontally. vertical garden  can also be extended to even the plants that
grown on a trellis or even a fence .This isn’t a modern concept as vertical
gardens existed in ancient time with example of hanging gardens of Babylon to
narrow back yards of palaces covered in vines in the Mediterranean region
dating 2000 years back (Kohler 2008).

Roof Gardens : When the roof of a building is
converted to a garden. While roof prove a aesthetical look they are also used for growing
roof plantings which may yield food, hydrological benefits, temperature
control, corridors or habitats for wildlife, recreational opportunities, architectural
enhancement and in providing large scale ecological benefits (Louise2009)

Vertical farming : The use of vertical stacked layers
for the production of  medicinal an
food based plants. integrated structures and/or vertically inclined surfaces (such
as in a shipping container , used warehouse or skyscraper). The ideas for
modern vertical faming include controlled-environment agriculture (CEA)
technology and the  usage of indoor
farming, where there is control over all environmental factors. These
facilities utilize fertigation , environmental control (temperature , gases, humidity
) and artificial control of light.

 

2.   
Study :Garden City

The author (F.J.Osborn)praised ebinizer
howard’s unique combination proposal. Which included 8 points such as :

Amenities : which gives the houses with private gardens,
space for schools, parks , parkways and spaces for other functional uses.

Town and country relationship : the defined town area is
surrounded by a large reserved land for agriculture which enables a mutual
benefit for town and farm people.

Unified Landownership : The entire site was to be put under
trust or quasi-public ownership. This would help secure the social element and
making the planning controlled.

This development was a social reform with emphasis on land
management and self-government.

While ‘Garden city’ experiment was
initially started in  Letchworth
Garden City and Welwyn
Garden City receiving both criticism and prise over the years. For example,
in a journal (Parham, S

Boyfield, K R, Garden
City Perpectives, 2016) praises the idea and states that Garden Cities have
demonstrated very few negative connotations and associations. High profile
initiatives, such as the 2014 Wolfson Economics Prize co-ordinated by Policy
Exchange. But according to author (Abel, C, 2010) who states that the garden
cities build with Howard’s principal have faced automobile dependent,
low-density suburbs of Australia’s major cities. Subject to extended droughts,
shrinking farmlands and raging bushfires, the continent is particularly
vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

While
the great many aspects of garden city were to improve the daily lives for the
people in terms of environmentally and socially, But, it a cannot be
implemented in a modern perspective for various reasons due to the
ever-expanding cities and the slow decline of agricultural field due to rapid
city expansion and climate change.  

The
scope of the garden city is very small as it handles only a population of
approximately of thirty thousand over a large area which would be an economic
burden. While the idea was to move people out of the cities it increased the
dependency on automobiles which in turn negates its positive effects and the
small population it handles do not have a drastic effect on the major urban
cities which are affected by urban heat Island, air and sound pollution.

Vertical Farming

The author (Voss 2012) states that importance of vertical
farming over modern day agriculture which has a lot of negative effects on the
environment. he points most of his study that based on the works of Prof
Dickson Despommier, who introduced the concept in 2009. He relocated the indoor
farming to the urban environment.

The focus goes towards the water where he states the growing
need for water for the growing population and nearly use of approximately 70%
of fresh water of which most in either evaporated or run-off. The water used in
vertical farming on the other hand can be controlled using methods such as Hydroponics
and Aeroponics which can potentially conserve up to 95% of water which
eliminates agricultural runoff and it negative effects on both environment and
humans. He also states that due to the controlled environment the water lost
through evaporation and transpiration can be claimed and reused. (Voss 2012).

Another aspect of modern agriculture is the land required
for production. Based on studies (Groom, Meffee & Carroll, 2005) the
planets biodiversity and ecosystem have been severely effected this includes
estuaries, wetlands, grasslands, tropical and temperate forests as these lands
have been altered for cultivation purpose. These ecosystems can be gradually
repaired with the help of vertical farming. As translocating the food
production would relieve and give time for the mother nature to repair the land
(Groom, Meffee & Carroll, 2005). This could intern help increase
biodiversity and carbon sequestration. 

Another aspect of modern agriculture is the land required
for production. Based on studies (Groom, Meffee & Carroll, 2005) the
planets biodiversity and ecosystem have been severely effected this includes
estuaries, wetlands, grasslands, tropical and temperate forests as these lands
have been altered for cultivation purpose. These ecosystems can be gradually
repaired with the help of vertical farming. As translocating the food
production would relieve and give time for the mother nature to repair the land
(Groom, Meffee & Carroll, 2005). This could intern help increase
biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Vertical faming occupies much less area
as it is stacked floors over one another instead of spreading horizontally.

As Ebenezer Howard wanted to have an interaction
between the town and farmlands. Vertical garden achieves the same. In
the present scenario fossil fuel in consumed for transportation and storage.
Transportation for agricultural foods is source for pollution and greenhouse
gas emission. Vertical farming meets the needs of an increasing urbanization.
Buildings used for farming can be placed anywhere while outdoor fields are
static in location. By strategically placing vertical farms inside or in the
near vicinity of urban centres and cities, it would meet the need for
localization of food production (Voss 2012).

Green Roofs

Green roofs are considered as one of the most effective
resolution for several problems both in building and urban level related to the
environment. In their research (Jaffal et al. (2012)) they state that green
roofs improve storm water management, reduce air and noise pollution, increase
animal and vegetal biodiversity in cities and reduce carbon footprint.

They further state that the longevity of the roofing
membranes is improved by green roofs as the thermal stress they are subjugated
to is limited. The paper further states that the building energy performance is
greatly impacted by green roofs through a series case studies and calculations
as roof gardens provide solar shading, thermal resistance and
evapotranspiration. The paper also identifies 
the green roofs into two categories : effective (15-20 cm soil
thickness) and intensive (15-20 cm thickness). With the former being easier for
retrofitting as additional strengthening is not required for the smaller load (Jaffal
et al. (2012)).

Vertical Gardens

Vertical gardens are useful tools in urban environments for
the mitigation of noise pollution.  It
can be stated that many places in urban environments or even inside buildings
are reverberant or noisy. Thermal mass is used as a measure to maintain
comfortable and stable indoor. As a result acoustically hard materials such as
masonry wall and concrete are used in which sound absorption is lacking.
However, these do not drastically decrease the noise and increase urban heat
island effect.  

The paper also states that Vertical gardens also lead in the
reduction of heat transfer between surrounding environment and a building based
on various other papers and studies. It further claims based on studies that
Volatile Organic Compounds in the air are filtered by the microbial activity of
root systems, the leaves capture particulate matter and wellbeing and
productivity increases coupled up with decrease in stress levels when in
contact with plants.

To support their claims the paper shows the result of
experiments done with 50 modules of garden spread across an area of 10.125 m2.
The author further states that based on required specific acoustic designers
working on vertical gardens should tune the thickness of the substrate. For
example thinner substrate are more suitable if lower frequencies are not taken
into consideration; thicker substrate is more suitable if lower frequencies are
essential.

Another research (davis,2015 ())  states that the vertical gardens can be used
as evaporate coolers. This is achieved through a mathematical model and later
experimented with setup models.

3.   
Conclusion of the Study

While these elements affect a building and their surrounding
they do not have a largescale effect. As they are yet to be implemented in a
large scale. While Ebinizer Howard’s garden city may not be suitable to the
present context it still addresses many issues, we face today. With the ever-expanding
cities it can be investigated that the aspect of developing a city extension with
more vertical elements having a multi-functional role incorporated with emphasis
on roof gardens, vertical gardens and farming integration with with the ‘unique
combined proposals’ of garden city. The modern garden city will be able to
address many of the environmental issues in a city and give the city a unique aesthetical
look.